Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) and Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy (POEM)
Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) is a novel surgical technique being investigated as a less invasive surgical method. NOTES procedures are performed using instruments in one body cavity, usually the peritoneal cavity, having gained access to this space by means of a natural orifice rather than percutaneously. Hybrid NOTES procedures are those which combine a NOTES approach as well as direct transcutaneous access to the cavity, usually in combination with laparoscopic instrumentation. Initial NOTES developments were restricted to animal models. Proposed benefits of this technique include avoidance of external scarring, less pain and lower risk of post-operative infection and immobility.
Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a novel endoscopic procedure that uses the oral cavity as a natural orifice entry point to perform myotomy or cutting of the muscle of the lower esophageal sphincter as treatment of esophageal achalasia; which is a disorder characterized by prolonged occlusion of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and reduced peristaltic activity. Traditionally esophageal achalasia is treated with a laparoscopic approach or Heller myotomy.
Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) for the treatment of conditions/diseases, including, but not limited to, the following: appendectomy, cholecystectomy, cystogastrostomy, and nephrectomy is considered investigational.
Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) for the treatment of esophageal achalasia is considered investigational.
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Well-designed comparative studies and long-term results are required to determine that natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, including POEM, is as effective as traditional methods. Evidence is lacking to determine the effects of this technology on health outcomes.
Akintoye, E., Kumar, N., Obaitan, I., Alayo, Q.A., & Thompson, C.C. (2016). Peroral endoscopic myotomy: a meta- analysis. Endoscopy, 48 (12), 1059-1068. Abstract retrieved December 11, 2017 from PubMed database.
American College of Gastroenterology. (2013, July). ACG clinical guideline: diagnosis and management of achalasia. Retrieved December 11, 2017 from http://gi.org/guideline/diagnosis-and-management-of-achalasia/.
Awaiz, A., Yunus, R.M., Khan, S., Memon, B., & Memon, M.A. (2017). Systematic review and meta-analysis of perioperative outcomes of peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) and laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM) for achalasia. Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy and percutaneous techniques, 27 (3), 123-131. Abstract retrieved December 11, 2017 from PubMed database.
BlueCross BlueShield Association. Medical Policy Reference Manual. (11:2017). Peroral endoscopic myotomy for treatment of esophageal achalasia (2.01.91). October 29, 2018 from http://www.evidencepositioningsystem.com . (30 articles and/or guidelines reviewed)
Bulian, B., Knuth, J., Lehmann, K., Sauerwald, A., & Heiss, M. (2015, October). Systematic analysis of the safety and benefits of transvaginal hybrid-NOTES cholecystectomy. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 21 (38), 10915-10925. (Level 3 evidence)
Crespin, O.M., Liu, L.W.C., Parmar, A., Jackson, T.D., Hamid, J., Shiomovitz, E., & Okrainec, A. (2017). Surgical Endoscopy, 31 (5), 2187-2201. Abstract retrieved December 11, 2017 from PubMed database.
Marano, L., Pallabazzer, G., Solito, B., Santi, S., Pigazzi, A., DeLuca, R., et al. (2016). Surgery or peroral esophageal myotomy for achalasia. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine, 95 (10), e3001. (Level 2 evidence)
Patel, K., Abbassi_Ghadi, N., Markar, S., Kumar, S., Jethwa, P., & Zaninotto, G. (2015). Peroral endoscopic myotomy for the treatment of esophageal achalasia: systematic review and pooled analysis. Diseases of the Esophagus, 29 (7), 807-819. Abstract retrieved December 11, 2017 from PubMed database.
Schwaitzberg, S.D., Roberts, K., Romanelli, J.R., Desilets, D.J., Earle, D., Horgan, S., et al. (2017). The NOVEL trial: natural orifice versus laparoscopic cholecystectomy- a prospective, randomized evaluation. Surgical Endoscopy, doi: 10.1007/s00464-017-5955-5. [Epub ahead of print]. Abstract retrieved December 11, 2017 from PubMed database.
Talukdar, R., Inoue, H., & Reddy, D.N. (2014). Efficacy of peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) in the treatment of achalasia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Surgical Endoscopy, 29 (11), 3030-3046. Abstract retrieved December 11, 2017 from PubMed database.
Winifred S. Hayes, Inc. Medical Technology Directory. (2015, December; last update search December 2017). Peroral endoscopic myotomy for treatment of esophageal achalasia. Retrieved October 29, 2018 from www.Hayesinc.com/subscribers. (75 articles and/or guidelines)
Xu, B., Xu, B., Wen-Yan, Z., Hai-Yan, G., Wang, L, Zhen-Sun, S, & Bin, H. (2015). Transvaginal cholecystectomy vs conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy for gallbladder disease: a meta-analysis. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 21 (17), 5393-5406. (Level 1 evidence)
Yang, J., Wang, C., Li, J., Yang, W., Cao, G., Wong, H.M., Zhai, H., & Liu, W. (2015). Complete endoscopic thyroidectomy via oral vestibular approach versus areola approach for treatment of thyroid diseases. Journal Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques, 25 (6), 470-476. Abstract retrieved July 16, 2015 from PubMed database.
Zhang, X., Modayil, R.J., Friedel, D., Gurram, K.C., Brathwaite, C.E., Taylor, S.I., et al. (2017). Per-oral endoscopic myotomy in patients with or without prior Heller myotomy: comparing long-term outcomes in a large U.S. single-center cohort (with videos). Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, doi:10.1016/j.gie.2017.10.039. [Epub ahead of print]. Abstract retrieved December 11, 2017 from PubMed database.
Zhang, Y., Wang, H., Chen, X., Liu, L., Wang, H., Lui, B., et al. (2016). Per-oral endoscopic myotomy versus laparoscopic Heller myotomy for achalasia. Medicine, Vol. 95, No. 6. (Level 2 evidence)
ORIGINAL EFFECTIVE DATE: 5/9/2009
MOST RECENT REVIEW DATE: 1/10/2019
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additional keyword(s): Transoral NOTES